Starch & Vegetables
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putting the ar back in starch”>putting the ‘ar’ back in starch
Unit One: Part 1 of 2
What it is
1. __plants__ store most of their energy as _starch_.
2. Through __photosynthesis_, plants convert energy into starches (like canned goods in a pantry) Interesting fact that won’t be found on the test: Throughout the night (when there is no sun to make energy from) plants convert the starch back into sugar. Smart little things. . .plants.
3. ___Amaranth___is a tiny seed. It has been cultivated for _5000_ years in Central America.
4. Interesting fact that might be on the test: The Aztecs used to pop this seed like popcorn AND they used to mix it with blood. . .
5. Jerusalem Artichoke is also known as __sunchoke__ and __sunroot_. Resembling a piece of __ginger___ this tuber has a _nutty__and ___sweet___flavour.
6. Though native to South America, this root is an important staple in Africa. __Cassava__ is either _sweet___ or __bitter_ and bitter cassava is poisonous unless it is cooked.
7. Corn is the _largest__ agricultural crop in the Americas and currently the __3rd __ largest human food crop worldwide (just behind wheat and rice). In the kitchen, corn can be found in __3__ different applications.
a) Corn’s __sugars_ are harvested to make sweeteners like corn _syrup__.
b) Corn’s __fats__ are harvested to make oils like corn_oil__.
c) Corn’s __endosperm___is dried and powdered to make starch called corn __starch__.
Interesting facts that might be on a test: The US leads the world in corn production (half of the world’s harvest) Most of this corn goes to feed animals. In the 1950’s, excavations for a new building in Mexico City uncovered pollen from the wild ancestor of corn, estimated to be 70,000 years old. On an ear of corn, the kernels always grow in an even number of rows. Baby corn is the immature ear of unpollinated corn. It was developed in Taiwan.
8. Millet is the seed from a __cereal__ grass that is cultivated in almost 1/3rd of the world’s __population__. Although it is bland in flavour, it lends itself well to other flavours.
9. Potato originates from the __Andes__ region of South America and has been cultivated for thousands of years. Most modern, commercial potatoes stem from a Chilean variety that was brought to Europe in the __1700’s___.
Potato Cooking Tip # 1 For better browning of roasted and oven-dried potatoes, refridgerate the whole potato for a day before cutting and cooking them. Chilling converts some of the starch in the potato to sugar and enhances browning.
Potato Cooking Tip # 2 To help potatoes retain firm texture in potato salads or during long cooking in a sauce or stew, first cook the potato at a fairly low temperature (130 F) for 20-30 minutes, then drain and let cool. This initial low-temperature cooking activates an enzyme in the potato’s cell walls that prevents the cells from weakening and making the potato mushy during long cooking. Precooking can also help keep mashed potatoes from becoming gluey because the potatoes firm up before the final cooking and mashing.
10. Pasta is made from __wheat__ therefore it is not a naturally occurring starch. It is made by mixing __flour___ with __egg___, _water__ then _kneaded_, and __cut__ into shapes.
Water Matters * If you cook pasta with hard water, consider adjusting its pH to make the pasta less skicky. Hard or alkaline, water contains minerals such as calcium and magnesium. Pasta cooked in hard rather than soft water becomes stickier because the mineral ions accelerate the protein breakdown and the softening of starch at the pasta surface. To adjust the pH, add acid (i.e. lemon juice).
Starch Worksheet Part 2 of 2
Related to spinach, beets and swiss chard, this grain is gluten free and has all 8 essential amino acids. Whole grain quinoa cooks completely in about 15 minutes and can be added to stews, soups, stir-fries and salads to add bulk, flavor and nutrients. It can also be eaten as an alternative to oatmeal.
Rice provides more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by humans. There are many varieties of rice; for many purposes the main distinction is between long and medium grain rice. The grains of long grain rice (high amylose) tend to remain intact after cooking; medium grain rice (high amylopectin) becomes more sticky. Medium grain rice is used for sweet dishes, and for risotto and many Spanish dishes.
Wild rice comes from a group of grasses that grow in shallow water in small lakes and slow flowing streams; often only flowering head of wild rice rises above the water. Wild rice has a smoky, nutty flavor and is a favorite in soups, breads or pilafs.
Usually, boiled, fried, or baked Sweet Potatoes are rich in complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, beta carotene (a vitamin A equivalent nutrient), vitamin C, and vitamin B6
Wheat grain is a staple food used to make flour for leavened, flat and steamed breads; cookies, cakes, breakfast cereal, pasta, juice, noodles and couscous; and for fermentation to make beer, alcohol and vodka.
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